Unpacking India’s CBDC Pilots as Country Prepares for Digital Rupee

India launched two CBDC pilots last year. The first, a wholesale CBDC effort (CBDC-W), began on Nov. 1 with the participation of nine banks. The other, a retail CBDC (CBDC-R) pilot, launched on Dec. 1 in four cities – Mumbai, New Delhi, Bengaluru and Bhubaneswar. Initially, four banks, including the State Bank of India, ICICI Bank, Yes Bank and IDFC First Bank participated.

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